Psychologists from USC, the University of Texas at Austin and Beijing Normal University recently have found that some of our understanding of memory retention is incorrect.In a study published online on Sept. 9 in Science, researchers at these schools discovered that memory increases when similar patterns are repeated for strength rather than when multiple varying patterns are made.The long-standing belief held by psychologists maintains that information is best remembered when attained or learned in varying contexts, which creates multiple patterns to remember the information.Gui Xue, a research assistant and professor of psychology at USC who worked on the project, said that while someone is studying an item, he or she has to process or re-activate the same pattern repeatedly in order to be able to better remember the information.“If you create one pattern during the first learning and a different pattern during the second learning, you are going to remember worse,” Xue said.Experiments were conducted using functional magnetic resonance imaging, or fMRI, which allowed the researchers to monitor the memory patterns used for recollection.Subjects were given materials such as words, faces and novel texts and were asked to recall material at a later time.“When the activation pattern is more consistent across repetitions, you are going to remember better,” Xue said.The research is aimed at developing additional understanding of the “forgetting curve.”This concept, developed by Hermann Ebbinghaus in 1885, holds that memory decreases exponentially with time. The strength of one’s memory is determined by how long memory traces sustain.Although this type of research does occur often, the researchers “developed new ideas — pattern similarity — and analysis techniques,” says study co-author Zhong-Lin Lu of USC, who holds the William M. Keck chair in cognitive neuroscience and is a professor of psychology and biomedical engineering.As the research continues, Lu said the group is working toward a larger objective.“One aim of our research is to find neural signatures that would allow us to predict whether and when people will forget learnt materials and refresh their memory before they forget,” Lu said.This information could then be used to determine when review is necessary in order to sustain knowledge. Having the ability to measure retention would greatly improve disciplines that rely heavily on memorization, such as language study.Xue, who received his Ph.D. in psychology from the Beijing Normal University, said the group’s main objective is to identify more beneficial methods of learning.“Our goal is to try to find a scientific basis for effective learning,” he said.
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The Trojans head up north to take on the No. 7 Stanford Cardinal in Palo Alto on Saturday in their first conference game of the season. To preview the matchup, the Daily Trojan asked a few questions to Vihan Lakshman, a football beat writer at the Stanford Daily. Daily Trojan: USC had no answer for Christian McCaffrey in the Pac-12 Championship Game last season. What are you predicting for McCaffrey on Saturday and how does USC slow him down?Vihan Lakshman: Christian McCaffrey’s 461 all-purpose yard yards in the Pac-12 Championship Game was a performance for the ages, and I don’t think it’s reasonable to expect anyone to replicate that kind of performance, including Stanford’s version of Reggie Bush. Nevertheless, McCaffrey never runs out of gas and can do damage in so many different ways on the field that I expect him to put up great numbers. At this point in his career, I think it’s safe to pencil McCaffrey in for 200 all-purpose yards in any given matchup because of the sheer number of times he will have the ball in his hands. The return of dynamic running back Bryce Love and the attention he demands will also help McCaffrey.For slowing down No. 5, I look at the blueprint laid out by three teams that had some degree of success against him last season: Northwestern, Washington State and Notre Dame. Each of those teams had defensive fronts that consistently broke into the backfield and swallowed McCaffrey before he ever got going. For all of his highlight-worthy plays, McCaffrey makes his money by patiently waiting for his blockers to open up holes before bursting for six or seven yards a carry. Defensive pressure up front neutralizes this ability. Moreover, pressure in the backfield can also rattle a quarterback, which can help slow McCaffrey down in the receiving game. Kevin Hogan was stellar in both of last year’s matchups with USC, contributing heavily to McCaffrey’s success, and the Trojans will have to bank on new quarterback Ryan Burns not quite maintaining Hogan’s same level of play in his second start. Slowing down McCaffrey is not an easy task, but if any team has the talent to make it happen, it’s USC.DT: Do you see parallels between Stanford and USC’s quarterback situations? Ryan Burns and Max Browne are the respective starters, but their backups — Keller Chryst and Sam Darnold — are more mobile and have received playing time. How do you think Stanford will use its quarterbacks on Saturday?V.L.: I think the parallels are there, but rather limited. Darnold, from what we have seen so far, looks much more mobile than Chryst, and the USC coaching staff seems to have several well-defined packages for their athletic redshirt freshman, particularly in the red zone. Darnold’s speed and ability to throw on the run allow him to complement Max Browne’s strengths and provide a change of pace for the Trojan offense. Burns and Chryst are very, very similar in skillset with just hairs of difference between them. David Shaw has said that Chryst will play against USC, and I expect that his role will be similar to the one he played against Kansas State where he came in on Stanford’s third offensive drive and led the Cardinal to a touchdown. Unlike Darnold, who’s more likely to take snaps in spot situations, Chryst will probably take over for an entire drive and run the offense as if no change had been made. Chryst’s role will largely depend on the flow of the game, but I see him as a lock to take over for one series, possibly two.DT: What have you credited Stanford’s rise to national prominence over the past few years to?V.L: The pillars of Stanford’s success in the past few years are the same as the ones at every elite program: talent and great coaching. What is remarkable is how the Cardinal built that platform in the first place. Stanford has mastered the art of selling the program to recruits, touting the school’s academics and rigorous admissions process as assets instead of hurdles. Shaw and company have also established a national recruiting presence with 29 states represented on the current roster (plus Canada and Austria), managing to find the driven, highly-talented players they covet who, most importantly, fit the program’s business-like culture.Regarding coaching, Stanford has benefited tremendously from the presence of brilliant football minds and unprecedented stability. Without a leader as adept and, quite frankly, crazy as Jim Harbaugh, the Cardinal would have never gotten off the ground. Now, for all the criticism he’s received for his in-game coaching decisions over the years, David Shaw is an elite CEO managing the program with NFL coaching experience to draw on as well. Crucially, Shaw has also stayed on The Farm despite numerous opportunities to leave, bucking the trend of Stanford serving as a springboard for supposedly more prestigious coaching jobs. The stability at the top has trickled down. In the past three seasons, Stanford has lost just one assistant coach, Randy Hart, who retired after the 2015 Rose Bowl. That kind of continuity has been a major asset for the program, and it all starts at the top with Shaw and top-notch coordinators in Mike Bloomgren and Lance Anderson.DT: How would you describe the relationship and perception of USC and the football team from the Stanford student body perspective?V.L: People despise USC. The Trojans have a reputation on campus for braggadocious behavior and an obsession with Hollywood glitz that, whether rightly or wrongly, rub Stanford fans the wrong way. However, underneath the surface-level dislike, there’s a high level of respect for USC as a program that’s historically served as the standard-bearer for college football, especially on the West Coast. This combination of disdain and underlying respect, along with the riveting games between the two teams this decade, has stoked the flames of this rivalry to new heights. If you asked a Stanford student today whether a win against the Trojans would feel more satisfying than a victory over Cal, I have no doubt the answer would be “yes.”DT: Do you see this game as a preview of a Pac-12 Championship re-match?V.L.With so much football left to be played, it’s too hard to tell how the conference standings will ultimately shake out. I’m certainly not going into this game with the expectation that we’ll see Stanford and USC play again this season. There are just way too many other threats in the North and South that both teams will have to overcome. With that being said, both teams are extremely talented and could very well meet for another duel in Levi’s Stadium. As a fan of college football and rivalry games, I would very much enjoy such a rematch, but it’s way too early to tell if that’s in the cards.
The world’s number 117 from Uzbekistan beaten the Serb 3 sets to 2.It’s Djokovic’s poorest Grand Slam showing for nearly nine years and he has no complaints about the result.Serena Williams, Caroline Wozniacki, Dominika Cibulkova, Richard Gasquet and Grigor Dimitrov all won their matches at Melbourne Park.
Children from Donegal will star in a new educational environmental programme which will air on TV screens across Ireland this week.‘Na Dulradóirí’ ‘which is the brain child of Donegal born Grainne McGuinness Managing Director of Paper Owl Films, will be shown on TG4.The show will see local school children from Loretto Community School, Milford, Coláiste Ailigh, Letterkenny, Scoil Mhuire Doire Beaga , St Columbus, St Eunan’s College and Pobal Scoil Gaoth Dobhar, Donegal get to grips with some of our prime environmental locations supplying scientists from around the world with research on our unique wildlife. The 12 part series will examine our impact on some of our various species including red squirrels, seals, red deer and badgers, to name a few.Presenters-Fionnuala-nic-Corraidh-from-West-Belfast-and-Colm-Mac-Giolla-Easbuic-from-donegalThe creative team at Paper Owl produced the programme with the aim to not only educate young people and their families about the detrimental impact our actions can have at both a local and global level but to empower young people to make a difference – by observing, recording and making local spaces safer for our unique wildlife.Grainne McGuinness, Managing Director of Paper Owl Films said they have been working on this project now for over a year and are so excited to see it finally come to life this week on our screens.“We’re thrilled to see this go on air on the Cúla4 young people’s zone on TG4 this Autumn, thanks to the support of Northern Ireland Screen’s Irish Language Broadcast Fund. “Paper Owl is genuinely passionate about protecting our natural environment and we want to get the message across at a young age that what you do even in your own backyard can have global repercussions. I believe Ireland boasts some of the most beautiful natural environments and we hope Na Dulradóirí showcases that. We hope the series will instill a sense of pride in the beauty of our natural landscape and wildlife to our younger generation.”On the look-out for deerChildren are encouraged to upload their findings on ‘Citizen Science’ websites where scientists from around the world can access the data.Grainne continued “Young people today are extremely au fait with technology from a very young age. We wanted to capitalise on their love of technology and gadgets by combining it with a love and interest of the outdoors. It’s quite an empowering message we want to convey – today’s technology enables children to help on a much bigger scale as results can be shared across the globe in a matter of minutes. They really can make a difference on a bigger level.”Colm Mac Giolla Easbuic from Donegal will present the programme alongside Fionnuala Nic Corraidh from Belfast.The first episode air yesterday on TG4 at 5.25pm and runs until 7th December. For more information visit www.paperowlfilms.com. The series was funded by TG4 & ILBF. Pictured are Producers Gavin Halpin, MD Gráinne McGuinness, originally form Donegal, and Editor Stephen Petticrew.Donegal schoolchildren are stars of new TV show was last modified: September 22nd, 2016 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)